Thursday, April 14, 2016

Tungara Frog, Engystomops pustulosus (Family Leptodactyldae)

Above. Foam nest of Engystomops pustulosus.
Paludicola pustulosa Cope, 1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 16:180. Type locality. "New Grenada, on the River Truando", Colombia.

Engystomops pustulosus — Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 276.

Eupemphix trinitatis Boulenger, 1889, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 6, 3: 307. Type locality. "Trinidad . . . in the Gardens".

Eupemphix pustulosa trinitatis — Parker, 1933, Trop. Agric., Trinidad, 10: 8-12.

Type locality: New Grenada, on the River Truando, Colombia. It ranges from Mexico to Colombia and Venezuela and is usually an abundant lowland species (although it can be found as high as 900 m ASL) that uses savanna as well as disturbed and natural forest. It occurs in Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, México, Nicaragua, Panamá, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela.

Males reach at least 30 mm, females are slightly larger. The skin is brown-grey and warty, making it likely to be mistaken for a toad. It is often in the vicinity of ponds, including puddles that accumulate in roadside ditches and tire tracks. Males call after dark while they float in the water. Eggs are deposited in foam nests, often under vegetation or debris, in pools. Foam nests prevent egg desiccation and protect the tadpoles. This is one of the most common amphibians in the islands.

Barbour, R.W. 1916. Amphibians and reptiles from Tobago. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 29: 221-224.

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Cannatella, D.C. and Duellman, W.E. 1984. Leptodactylid frogs of the Physalaemus pustulosus group. Copeia 1984: 902-921.

Duellman, W.E. 1997. Amphibians of La Escalera region, Southeastern Venezuela: Taxonomy, Ecology, and Biogeography. Scientific papers of the Natural History Museum of the University of Kansas: 1-52.

Frost, D.R. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Allen Press and the Association of Systematic Collections, Lawrence, Kansas.

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Hardy Jr., J.D. 1982. Biogeography of Tobago, West Indies, with special reference to amphibians and reptiles. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 18(2): 37-142.

Hoogmoed, M.S. and Gorzula, S. 1979. Checklist of the savanna inhabiting frogs of the El Manteco region with notes on their ecology and the description of a new species of tree frog (Hylidae, Anura). Zoologischer Mededelinger Leiden: 183-216.

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Ibáñez, R., Solís, F., Jaramillo, C. and Rand, S. 2000. An overview of the herpetology of Panama. In: J.D. Johnson, R.G. Webb and O.A. Flores-Villela (eds), Mesoamerican Herpetology: Systematics, Zoogeography and Conservation, pp. 159-170. The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.2). Available at: (Accessed: 29 June 2010).

Kenny, J.S. 1969. The Amphibia of Trinidad. Studies on the Fauna of Curacao and Other Caribbean Islands.

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La Marca, E. 1992. Catálogo taxonómico, biogeográfico y bibliográfico de las ranas de Venezuela. Cuadernos Geográficos, Universidad de Los Andes 1: 1-197.

La Marca, E. and Lötters, S. 1997. Monitoring of declines in Venezuelan Atelopus. In: Bohme,W., Bishoff, W. and Ziegler, T. (eds), Herpetologia Bonnensis, pp. 207-213. Society European Herpetology, Bonn.

Lee, J.C. 1996. The Amphibians and Reptiles of the Yucatán Peninsula. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.

Manzanilla, J., Fernandez-Badillo, A., La Marca, E. and Visbal, R. 1995. Fauna del Parque Nacional Henri Pittier, Venezuela. Composición y distribución de los anfibios.Acta Científica Venezolana: 294-302.

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Mole, R.R. and Urich, F.W. 1894. A preliminary list of the reptiles and batrachians of the island of Tobago. Journal of the Trinidad Field Naturalists’ Club: 77-90.

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Ron, S.R., Coloma, L.A. and Cannatella, D.C. 2005. A new, cryptic species ofPhysalaemus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from western Ecuador with comments on the call structure of the P. pustulosus species group. Herpetologica: 178-198.

Ron, S.R., Santos, J.C. and Cannatella, D.C. 2006. Phylogeny of the túngara frog genusEngystomops (=Physalaemus pustulosus species group; Anura: Leptodactylidae).Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.11.022.

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