Thursday, April 14, 2016

Giant Treefrog, Boana boans (Family Hylidae)

Rana boans Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1: 213. Type locality: "America".

Rana maxima Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 32.

Hyla boans — Daudin, 1800, Hist. Nat. Quad. Ovip., Livr. 1: 11;

Hypsiboas boans — Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 89.

Dubois (2017 Bionomina, 11: 17) arrived at the conclusion that Boana was the appropriate generic name for the Trinidad frogs formerly placed in the genus Hypsiboas.

Type locality: "America.” Distribution. Eastern Panama to Trinidad, upper Orinoco, Lower Amazon Basin, the Magdalena Basins, Guianas, and Pacific lowlands of Colombia and adjacent Ecuador in South America.

T&T's largest treefrog. Males slightly larger than females, males 101-128 mm, females 91-123 mm. Commonly found in gallery forests along streams, often associated with stands of bamboo and other tall grasses. Males may construct nests in stream bed during dry season, and defend egg laying sites from other males. The dorsum is brown in males and orange-brown in females. The ventral surface is a uniform cream to white in both sexes. Transverse darker bars occur on the sides of the body and legs. The membrane between the fingers is complete to the start of the terminal segment of the finger. The iris is orange brown.

A highly arboreal frog that is nocturnal, reproduction occurs at the end of the dry season. Clutches of 1300-3000 eggs are deposited as a gelatinous film on the water surface in nest basins constructed by the male, nest basins usually streamside and flooded with rains. Male combat occurs over nesting sites. Males use an exposed bones on their thumb to fight. The tadpoles are light brown and on sand or gravel bottom streams. Fish seem to avoid eating the tadpoles.

Barrio Amorós, C.L. 2004. Amphibians of Venezuela Systematic List, Distribution and References, An Update. Review of Ecology in Latin America 9(3): 1-48.

Barrio, C. 1998. Sistemática y Biogeografía de los Anfibios (Amphibia) de Venezuela.Acta Biologica Venezuelica: 1-93.

Barrio, C.L. 1999. Geographic Distribution: Hyla boans. Herpetological Review: 230.

Barrio, C.L. 2001. Geographic Distribution: Hyla boans. Herpetological Review: 113-114.

Cisneros-Heredia, D.F. 2003. La herpetofauna de la Estación de Biodiversidad Tiputini, Provincia de Orellana, Amazonia Ecuador. Mem. 1er Congreso Ecuatatoriano de Ecologia and Ambeinte, Univ. San Francisco de Quito, Quito, Ecuador.

Dubois, A. 2017. The nomenclatural status of Hysaplesia, Hylaplesia, Dendrobates and related nomina (Amphibia, Anura), with general comments on zoological nomenclature and its governance, as well as on taxonomic databases and websites. Bionomina 11: 1–48.

Duellman, W.E. 1971. The nomenclatural status of the names Hyla boans (Linnaeus) andHyla maxima (Laurenti) (Anura: Hylidae). Herpetologica: 397-405.

Duellman, W.E. 1997. Amphibians of La Escalera region, Southeastern Venezuela: Taxonomy, Ecology, and Biogeography. Scientific papers of the Natural History Museum of the University of Kansas: 1-52.

Duellman, W.E. 2001. The Hylid Frogs of Middle America. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York, USA.

Ernst, R., Rödel, M-O. and Arjoon, D. 2005. On the cutting edge – The anuran fauna of the Mabura Hill Forest Reserve, Central Guyana. Salamandra 41(4): 179-194.

Faivovich, J., Haddad, C.F.B., Garcia, P.C.O., Frost, D.R., Campbell, J.A. and Wheeler, W.C. 2005. Systematic review of the frog family Hylidae, with special reference to Hylinae: Phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 294: 1-240.

Gascon, C. 1996. Amphibian litter fauna as river barrier in flooded and non flooded Amazonian rainforest. Biotropica: 136-140.

Hero, J.-M. 1990. An illustrated key to tadpoles occurring in the Central Amazon rainforest, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. Amazoniana: 201-262.

Hoogmoed, M.S. 1990. Resurrection of Hyla wavrini Parker (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae), a gladiator frog from northern South America. Zool. Meded. Leiden: 71-93.

Ibañez, R., Rand, A.S. and Jaramillo, C.A. 1999. Los anfibios del Monumento Natural Barro Colorado, Parque Nacional Soberanía y áreas adyacentes. Mizrachi, E. and Pujol, S.A., Santa Fe de Bogota.

Ibáñez, R., Solís, F., Jaramillo, C. and Rand, S. 2000. An overview of the herpetology of Panama. In: J.D. Johnson, R.G. Webb and O.A. Flores-Villela (eds), Mesoamerican Herpetology: Systematics, Zoogeography and Conservation, pp. 159-170. The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.2). Available at: (Accessed: 29 June 2010).

Kenny, J.S. 1969. The Amphibia of Trinidad. Studies on the Fauna of Curacao and Other Caribbean Islands.

La Marca, E. 1992. Catálogo taxonómico, biogeográfico y bibliográfico de las ranas de Venezuela. Cuadernos Geográficos, Universidad de Los Andes 1: 1-197.

La Marca, E. 1997. Lista actualizada de los anfibios de Venezuela. In: La Marca, E. (ed.),Vertebrados Actuales y Fosiles de Venezuela, pp. 103-120. Museo de Ciencias y Tecnología de Mérida, Mérida.

Lescure, J. 1976. Contribution a l'étude des amphibiens de Guyane francaise. VI. Liste préliminaire des anoures. Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, France, 3 serie: 475-524.

Lescure, J. and Marty, C. 2000. Atlas des Amphibiens de Guyane. Patrimoines Naturels, Paris.

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm.

Lutz, B. 1973. Brazilian species of Hyla. University of Texas Press, Austin.

Lynch, J.D. 2006. The amphibian fauna in the Villavicencio region of Eastern Colombia.Caldasia 28(1): 135-155.

Moreira, G.R., Gordo, M., Martins, M., Galatti, U. and Oda, W.Y. 1997. Relatório Final da Área Temática Herpetofauna. Macrozoneamento Sócio-Econômico-Ecológico do Estado de Rondônia. Planafloro report, pp. 1-57. Planafloro, Porto Velho.

Murphy, J.C. 1997. Amphibians and Reptiles of Trinidad and Tobago. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida.

Parker, H.W. 1933. A list of the frogs and toads of Trinidad. Tropical Agriculture 10(1): 8-12.

Rodríguez, L.O. and Duellman, W.E. 1994. Guide to the frogs of the Iquitos region, Amazonian Peru. Asocacion de Ecologia y Conservacion, Amazon Center for Environmental Education and Research and Natural History Museum, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas.

Ruiz-Carranza, P.M., Ardila-Robayo, M.C. and Lynch, J.D. 1996. Lista actualizada de la fauna de Amphibia de Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 20(77): 365-415.

Souza, M.B. 2003. Diversidade de Anfíbios nas Unidades de Conservação Ambiental: Reservas Extrativista do Alto Juruá (REAJ) e Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor (PNSD), Acre, Brasil. PhD Thesis, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Biociências de Rio Claro.

Villa, J., Wilson, L.D. and Johnson, J.D. 1988. Middle American Herpetology. Univ. Missouri Press, Columbia.

Vitt, L.J. and Caldwell, J.P. 1998. Inventário e Ecologia da herpetofauna da Amazônia: Rio Ajanari, Roraima, Brasil. Report Proj. NSF Project DEB-9505518 (not published).

No comments:

Post a Comment