Friday, April 1, 2016

Paradox Frog, Pseudis paradoxus caribensis Galllardo

Rana paradoxa Linnaeus, 1758: 212. Type locality: Suriname.

Pseudes paradoxa — Wiegmann, 1832: 148.

Pseudis paradoxus caribensis Gallardo, 1961. Holotype: MCZ 19890, by original designation. Type locality: Mayaro Bay, Trinidad.

Adults are 45-75 mm in total length. Body is short and stout; eyes dorsolateral; dorsal and ventral skin; fingers free of webbing, toes heavily webbed. Dorsum green anteriorly, brown to green posteriorly; flash marks on posterior surface of femur. Ventral immaculate white. has the largest, or near largest tadpoles known when compared to adult size. Tadpoles are 220 mm (3 to 4 times longer than adult frogs). As currently defined it is known from the following countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad (unknown from Tobago), and Venezuela. Usually found in open marshy areas with floating vegetation, in permanent and temporary ponds. Calls can be heard day and night and consists of a sequence of 8-11 pulses, but frogs are very wary during the day. At night they can be seen floating on the surface and grasping vegetation with their hands. Mating may be stimulated by rainfall. Eggs are green and laid along the shore among aquatic plants.

 Abstract from Aguiar et al. (2007)
The previous uncertain placement of Lysapsus and Pseudis within the neobatrachians was recently resolved by molecular and morphological studies, which supported them as members of the Hylinae subfamily. Their inter- and intrageneric relationships, however, have long been under debate and no studies shed light on these questions. Aiming to elucidate such questions, this paper used 3.2 kb comprising the mitochondrial genes 12S, tRNA valine, 16S and cytochrome b, and the nuclear exon 1 coding for rhodopsin, to all representatives of both genera (except to two subspecies of Pseudis paradoxa). The results identified three major clades: the clade 1 was composed by Lysapsus species and subspecies; clade 2 included the subspecies of the Pseudis paradoxa (Pseudis paradoxa paradoxa, P. paradoxa platensis and P. paradoxa occidentalis), P. fusca, P. bolbodactyla and P. tocantins, and clade 3 was composed by Pseudis southern Brazil species (Pseudis cardosoi and P. minuta). As closely related taxa we found Pseudis minuta + P. cardosoi; P. tocantins + P. fusca, and the subspecies within each genus. Evidence that Pseudis is not monophyletic with respect to Lysapsus was found and we suggest Lysapsus to be a junior synonym of Pseudis. Based on pair-wise comparison among gene sequences, we also suggest that the subspecies of Pseudis paradoxa and Lysapsus limellum must be considered as full species.

Aguiar O, Bacci M, Lima AP, Rossa‐Feres D, Haddad CF, Recco‐Pimentel SM. Phylogenetic relationships of Pseudis and Lysapsus (Anura, Hylidae, Hylinae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences. Cladistics. 2007 Oct 1;23(5):455-63.

Pseudis paradoxa habitat on Trinidad
Range of Pseudis paradoxa from AmphibiaWeb

Range of Pseudis paradoxa on Trinidad

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