Thursday, April 14, 2016

Oriental Glass Frog, Hyalinobatrachium orientale tobagoense (Family Centrolenidae)

Centrolenella orientalis Rivero, 1968, Mem. Soc. Cienc. Nat. La Salle, 28: 308. Type locality: "Cerro Turumiquire, 1.200 m, Estados Sucre-Monagas, Venezuela".
Centrolenella orientalis orientalis — Hardy, 1984, Bull. Maryland Herpetol. Soc., 20: 165.
Centrolenella orientalis tobagoensis Hardy, 1984, Bull. Maryland Herpetol. Soc., 20: 165. Type locality: "along the Roxborough--Partatuvier Road in the vicinity of Bloody Bay, St. John Parish, Tobago". 
Hyalinobatrachium orientale tobagoensis — Murphy, 1997, Amph. Rept. Trinidad Tobago: 61.
Hyalinobatrachium orientale tobagoense — Frost, 2004, Amph. Spec. World, vers. 3.0. 

Found only in streams that drain the Main Ridge of Tobago and the coastal ranges of Venezuela. It is closely associated with fast flowing streams where it lays its eggs on the underside of leaves overhanging the water. When the tadpoles hatch they drop into the water.

Downie et al. (2015) described the tadpole of the Tobago glass frog Hyalinobatrachium orientale tobagoense. Similar to other Hyalinobatrachium species tadpoles described to date, it lives hidden in sand and gravel at the bottom of stream beds. They have relatively long tails and slender lightly pigmented bodies with tiny eyes. They appear to grow very slowly and hindlimb buds were not developed in the sixth week.

Males also call from the underside of leaves (below) and attend the eggs in some cases they may have four or five clutches of eggs on a single leaf, attended by a single male.

Barrio Amorós, C.L. 2004. Amphibians of Venezuela Systematic List, Distribution and References, An Update. Review of Ecology in Latin America 9(3): 1-48.

Cannatella, D.C. and Lamar, W.W. 1986. Synonymy and distribution of Centrolenella orientalis with notes on its life history (Anura: Centrolenidae). Journal of Herpetology: 307-317.

Duellman, W.E. 1977. Liste der rezenten Amphibien und Reptilien: Hylidae, Centrolenidae, Pseudidae. Das Tierreich: 1-225.

Hardy Jr., J.D. 1982. Biogeography of Tobago, West Indies, with special reference to amphibians and reptiles. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 18(2): 37-142.

Hardy, Jr, J.D. 1984. A new subspecies of Centrolenella orientalis (Anura: Centrolenidae) from Tobago, West Indies. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society: 165-173.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.

La Marca, E. 1992. Catalogo taxonomico, biogeografico y bibliografico de las ranas de Venezuela. Cuadernos Geograficos, Universidad de Los Andes: 1-197.

La Marca, E. 1995. Crisis de biodiversidad en anfibios de Venezuela: estudio de casos. In: Alonso-Amelot, M.E. (ed.), La Biodiversidad Neotropical y la Amenaza de las Extinciones, pp. 47-69. Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida.

La Marca, E. 1997. Lista actualizada de los anfibios de Venezuela. In: La Marca, E. (ed.),Vertebrados Actuales y Fosiles de Venezuela, pp. 103-120. Museo de Ciencias y Tecnología de Mérida, Mérida.

Lehtinen RM, Georgiadis AP. Observations on parental care in the glass frog Hyalinobatrachium orientale (Anura: Centrolenidae) from Tobago, with comments on its natural history. Phyllomedusa: Journal of Herpetology. 2012 Jun 18;11(1):75-7.

Jowers MJ, Lehtinen RM, Downie RJ, Georgiadis AP, Murphy JC. Molecular phylogenetics of the glass frog Hyalinobatrachium orientale (Anura: Centrolenidae): evidence for Pliocene connections between mainland Venezuela and the island of Tobago. Mitochondrial DNA. 2015 Jul 4;26(4):613-8.

Murphy, J.C. 1997. Amphibians and Reptiles of Trinidad and Tobago. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida.

Myers, C.W. and Donnelly, M.A. 1997. A tepui herpetofauna on a granitic mountain (Tamacuari) in the borderland between Venezuela and Brazil: report from the Phipps Tapirapecó expedition. American Museum Novitates: 1-71.

Rivero, J.A. 1968. Los centrolénidos de Venezuela (Amphibia, Salientia). Memoria de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle: 301-334.

Rivero, J.A. 1985. Nuevos centrolenidos de Colombia y Venezuela. Brenesia: 335-373.

Ruiz-Carranza, P.M. and Lynch, J.D. 1991. Ranas Centrolenidae de Colombia I. Propuesta de una nueva clasificación genérica. Lozania (Acta Zoológica colombiana): 1-30.

Ruiz-Carranza, P.M., Ardila-Robayo, M.C. and Lynch, J.D. 1996. Lista actualizada de la fauna de Amphibia de Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 20(77): 365-415.

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