Thursday, April 14, 2016

Neotropical Treefrog, Boana xerophylla (Family Hylidae)

The AMNH Amphibians of the World summarize the name change of Hypsiboas crepitans to Boana xerophyla in the following explanation:


Removed from the synonymy of Hypsiboas crepitans by Orrico, Nunes, Mattedi, Fouquet, Lemos, Rivera-Correa, Lyra, Loebmann, Pimenta, Caramaschi, Rodrigues, and Haddad, 2017, Salamandra, 53: 107, where it had been placed by Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 24. See account (as Hyla fuentei) for Surinam population by Ouboter and Jairam, 2012, Amph. Suriname: 148-150. In the Hyla boans group of Duellman, 2001, Hylid Frogs Middle Am., Ed. 2: 859 (who also noted that the previous record for this species in Honduras was erroneous). This taxon (as Hyla crepitans) considered to be a composite of several species; see Kluge, 1979, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 688: 1–24 (see Hyla pugnax). Kenny, 1969, Stud. Fauna Curaçao and other Caribb. Is., 29: 38-40, and Murphy, 1997, Amph. Rept. Trinidad Tobago: 66–67, provided accounts for the Trinidad and Tobago populations (as Hyla crepitans). Lescure and Marty, 2000, Collect. Patrimoines Nat., Paris, 45: 118–119, provided a brief account (as Hyla crepitans) and photo (although this photo is of an undescribed cryptic rainforest species according to Barrio-Amorós, personal commun.). Lynch and Suárez-Mayorga, 2001, Caldasia, 23: 491–507, discussed the Colombian range of the species (as Hyla crepitans) and suggested that the nominal species is a composite of cryptic species, mirrored by comments by Barrio-Amorós, 1999 "1998", Acta Biol. Venezuelica, 18: 29. See comment regarding geographic differentiation (as Hyla crepitans) in Venezuela by Gorzula and Señaris, 1999 "1998", Scient. Guaianae, 8: 29-30. In the Hypsiboas faber group of Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 87. Martins, Silva, and Giaretta, 2009, Salamandra, 45: 106–109, suggested on the basis of call structure that the two allopatric populations were probably distinct species; these were formally diagnosed (as Hypsiboas xerophylla and Hypsiboas crepitans) and revised by Orrico, Nunes, Mattedi, Fouquet, Lemos, Rivera-Correa, Lyra, Loebmann, Pimenta, Caramaschi, Rodrigues, and Haddad, 2017, Salamandra, 53: 99–113. See account for Surinam population (as Hypsiboas fuentei and Hypsiboas crepitans) by Ouboter and Jairam, 2012, Amph. Suriname: 140–143. See Cole, Townsend, Reynolds, MacCulloch, and Lathrop, 2013, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 125: 404, for brief account (as Hypsiboas crepitans) and records for Guyana. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 232–235, provided a brief summary of natural history for the species of Hypsiboas in Central America and provided a range map and photograph for this species, as Hypsiboas crepitans. Vanzolini and Myers, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 395: 72, doubted that the populations in Panama and Colombia (now Hypsiboas xerophylla) are conspecific with the Brazilian species (now Hypsiboas crepitans). Guarnizo, Paz, Muñoz-Ortiz, Flechas, Méndez-Narváez, and Crawford, 2016, PLoS One, 10(5: e0127312): 1–20, suggested on the basis of molecular evidence that two species may exist in Colombia (as Hypsiboas crepitans). 



Hyla xerophylla Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8:549. Holotype: MNHNP 652.Type locality: "Cayenne", French Guiana.

Hyla levaillantii Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8:550. Holotype: MNHNP 764. Type locality: "Surinam".

Hyla doumercii Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 551. Holotype: MNHNP 766. Type locality: "Surinam".
Hypsiboas (Hypsipsophus) xerophyllum — Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.:30.

Hypsiboas levaillantii — Cope, 1867, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6:200.

Hypsiboas doumericii — Cope, 1867, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6:200.

Hypsiboas xerophyllum — Cope, 1867, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6:200.

Hypsiboas indris Cope, 1867, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 201. Holotype: KM 1009, according to Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 49. Type locality: "Surinam".

Hyla indris — Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 353.

Hyla fuentei Goin and Goin, 1968, Copeia, 1968: 581. Holotype: CM 44218, by original designation. Type locality: "Suriname, Suriname District. Powakka".

Hyla fuentei — Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 89.

Hypsiboas xerophylla — Orrico, Nunes, Mattedi, Fouquet, Lemos, Rivera-Correa, Lyra, Loebmann, Pimenta, Caramaschi, Rodrigues, and Haddad, 2017, Salamandra, 53: 99.

Boana fuentei — Dubois, 2017, Bionomina, 11: 28.

Boana xerophylla — Dubois, 2017, Bionomina, 11: 28. 

Other Common Names: The Rattle-voice Treefrog, Gladiator Frog, Flying Frog, Emerald Eye Treefrog.

Males reach 61 mm, females 73 mm.

A widespread species with a disjunctive distribution. One population ranges from Panama to northern Colombia, Venezuela and into northern Brazil, occurs on both Trinidad and Tobago and throughout the Guianas. The other population is in Brazil's Atlantic Forest.

The Neotropical Treefrog uses a variety of habitats, ranging from humid tropical forests, semi- arid environments, grasslands, pastures and lower montane forests. It is an arboreal and nocturnal using trees, on shrubs and other vegetation near water. The species breeds in temporary pools or along permanent streams early in the rainy season. During the day this frog can be found in bushes, sitting on leaves, it is bright white in color. Some populations lay eggs in rafts that float on the water, other seem to have basins in gravel that forms nests. While this is considered a common widespread frog, in reality, it is a complex of cryptic species in need of systematic revision.

Males engage in combat for calling stations and are sometimes referred to as gladiator frogs. Males may call from the edge of the water or while floating on water. They will call after rains but also call less frequently well into the dry season.


Lehtinen, R.M., 2014. Confirmation of nest building in a population of the gladiator frog Hypsiboas crepitans (Anura, Hylidae) from the island of Tobago (West Indies). Herpetology Notes, 7, pp.227-229.





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