Snakes

SNAKES 
A Checklist for Trinidad & Tobago
Family  Aniliidae
Anilius scytale scytale (Linnaeus)
[AnguisScytale Linnaeus, 1758: 228. Type: NHRM 13, Type locality: “Indiis.”
Anilius scytale: Oken, 1816:283.


Family Anomalepidae
Helminthophis cf. flavoterminatus  


Typhlophis squamosus Schlegel 
Typhlophis squamosus Schlegel 1839:141.  Holotype RMNH or MHNH, presumed lost. Type locality: “Cayenne” (French Guiana).


Family Leptotyphlopidae
Epictia cf. fallax, 
Stenostoma fallax, Peters 1857
Epictia  tenella (Klauber)
Stenostoma albifrons – Garman, 1887c:278.
Glauconia albifrons ­– Boulenger, 1893, vol. 1:63.
Leptotyphlops albifrons  Barbour, 19l6a:441.
Leptotyphlops tenella Klauber, 1939:59. Holotype: AMNH 14269. Type locality: Kartabo, Guyana.
L. a. tenella  Roze, 1952a: 156.
L. albifrons  Winstel, 1984b:9.
Leptotyphlops tenellus  Wallach, 1999. (In MacDiarmid et al.)
Epictia tenella -  Adalsteinsson et al. 2009.
Family Typhlopidae
Amerotyphlops cf. brongersmianus 
Typhlops reticulatus – Mole and Urich. 1894a:82.
Typhlops sp. – Underwood, 1962: 179.
Typhlops brongersmai Vanzolini, 1972a:27. Type locality: Baira de Itaipe, Ilheus, Bahia, Brazil.
Typhlops brongersmianus – Vanzolini, 1976:247 (replacement name for brongersmai).
Amerotyphlops trinitatus Richmond
Typhlops cf. lehneri – Ernsley, 1963:577.
Typhlops trinitatus Richmond, 1965:121. Type locality: Trinidad, in log beside Arirna road, 3 mi above Simla.
Typhlops lehneri – Emsley, 1977:232.
Family Boidae
Boa constrictor (Linnaeus)
Boa constrictor Linnaeus. 1758:215. Type locality: "India" (in error).
Boa imperator – Reinhardt and Lutken, 1862: 12.
Boa diviniloqua – Boulenger, 1893: 118.
Constrictor constrictor – Barbour, 1916b:223.
Constrictor (Boa) constrictor – Field, 1942:40.
Boa constrictor constrictor – Forcart, 1951: 199.
Constrictor constrictor constrictor –Underwood,1962: 179.
Boa c. constrictor – DeVerteuil, 1968: 101.


Corallus ruschenbergerii (Cope, 1867)
Corallus cookii Gray, 1842:42. Type locality: unknown.
Xiphosoma hortulanum – Reinhardt and Lutken, 1862: 12.
Corallus cookii var. melanea – Boulenger, 1893: 100.
Corallus cookei ruschenbergi – Boettger, 1898:10. Holotype: ANSP 10325. Type locality: “Panama.”
Corallus cookii var. c. – Werner, 1900:269.
Boa hortulana – Barbour I1930b: 108.
Corallus enydris cookii – Forcart, 1951: 197.
Boa enhydris cookii – Underwood, 1962: 179.
Corallus hortulanus cookii – Roze, 1966:61.
Corallus enydris cooki – Schwartz and Thomas, 1975:181.
Corallus ruschenbergerii – Henderson 1997:33.


Epicrates maurus Gray
Epicrates maurus Gray, 1849:96. Type locality: Venezuela.
Epicrates cenchria – Reinhardt and Lutken, 1862:12.
Epicrates cenchria maurus – Stull, 1935:396.
Epicrates cenchris – Field, 1942:40.
Epicrates cenchris – Wehekind, 1955: 10.
Epicrares maurus – Chippaux, 1986:37.
Epicrates maurus - Passos and Fernandes, 2008


Eunectes murinus (Linnaeus)
Boa murina Linnaeus, 1758:215. Type locality: "America."
Boa murina – Court, 1858:441.
Eunec urnus – Kingsley, 1890:277.
Eunectes murinus – Reinhardt and Lutken, 1862:12.
Eunectes murinus gigas – Dunn and Conant, 1936:503.
Eunectes murinus murinus – Belluomini, et al., 1976-77:85.
Family Colubridae
Chironius carinatus (Linnaeus)
Coluber carinatus Linnaeus, 1758:223. Type locality: "Indiis."
Herpetodryas fuscus – Reinhardt and Lutken, 1862: 10.
Herpetodryas carinatus – Boulenger, 1891:335.
Herpetodryas macrophthalmus – Mole and Urich, I 894a:85.
Chironius carinatus – Ruthven, 1922:65.


Chironius septentrionalis Dixon, Wiest, and Cei
Chironius multiventris septentrionalis Dixon et al 1993
Chironius septentrionalis: Hollis, 2006


Drymarchon corais (Boie, 1827)
Coluber corais Boie, 1827:537. Type locality: America.
Coluber variabilis – Court, 1858 [in part].
Spilotes corais – Reinhardt and Lutken, 1862:8.
Drymarchon corais corais – Stejneger, 1899:70.
Drymarchon corais – Barbour, 1916b:224.
Drymarchon c. corais – DeVerteuil, 1968:101. [Tobago].


Leptophis coeruleodorsus Oliver
Ahaetulla liocercus – Reinhardt and Lutken, 1862: 10.
Dendrophis liocercus – Court, 1884:382.
Leptophis liocercus – Mole and Urich,1894a:85.
Leptophis coeruleodorsus Oliver, 1942:462. Type locality: Trinidad.
Thalerophis richardi coeruleodorsus – Oliver. 1948: 170.
Leptophis ahaetulla coeruleodorsus – Internal. Comm. Zool. Nom. Op. 1958 (524):270.
Thalarophis richardi coeruleodorsus – Wehekind, 1960:73.
Leptophis ahaetulla – Boos and Quesnel, 1968:14.
Leptophis a. ahaetulla – DeVerteuil, 1968:101.


Leptophis haileyi  Murphy, Charles, Lehtinen & Koeller 2013
Leptophis haileyi Murphy, Charles, Lehtinen & Koeller 2013


Leptophis stimsoni Harding
Leptophis stimsoni Harding, 1995. Holotype: BMNH 1940.3.11.84, the type locality is Mount Aripo, Northern Range, Trinidad at an elevation of about 914 m.
Leptophis riveti – Murphy, 1997:181


Mastigodryas amarali  Stuart 1938
questionable presence
Eudryas amarali Stuart 1938: 7
Mastigodryas amarali — Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970: 191


Mastigodryas boddaerti boddaerti (Sentzen)
Coluber boddaerti Sentzen, 1796:59. Type locality: unknown.
Herpetodryas boddaertii – Garman, 1887c:284.
Drymobius boddaerti – Boettger, 1898:47.
Dryadophis boddaerti boddaerti – Stuart, 1941:70.
Drymobius b. boddaerti – Wehekind, 1955:10.
Mastigodryas boddaerti boddaerti – Peters and Orejas-Miranda, 1970: 193.


Mastigodryas  dunni (Stuart)
Eudryas dunni Stuart 1933:5. Type locality: Tobago Island, B.W.I.
Drymobius boddaertii – Cope, 1879:276.
Dryadophis boddaerti dunni – Stuart, 1941:76.
Dryadophis boddaerti dunni – Brongersma, 1956b: 178.
Drymobius boddaerti – Underwood, 1962: 104.
Drymobius b. boddaerti – De Verteuil, 1968: 101.
Mastigodryas boddaerti dunni – Peters and Orejas-Miranda, 1970:193.


Oxybelis aeneus (Wagler)
Dryinus aeneus Wagler, 1824:12, pl 12, Type locality: Tefe, Amazonas, Brazil.
Oxybelis aeneus – Wagler, 1830:183.
Dendrophis aurata – Court, 1858:411.
Dryiophis aeneus – Garman, 1887c:284.
Oxybelis acuminatus – Mole and Urich, 1894a:86.
Oxybelis aeneus aeneus – Beebe, 1952:175.
Oxybelis a. aeneus – Wehekind, 1960:75.
Oxybelis ae. Aeneus – Mertens, 1972:18.


Phrynonax  polylepis (Peters)
Ahaetulla polylepis – Peters, 1867:706. Type locality: Suriname.
Coluber poecilostoma: Mole and Urich: 1894a:84.
Phrynonax eutropis – Mole and Urich, 1894a:85.
Phrynonax fasciatus – Boettger, 1898:49.
Phrynol1ax poecilol1otus polylepis – Amaral, 1930a: 156.
Pseustes [poecilonotus polylepis] – Brongersma, 1937:6.
Pseustes poecilonetus polylepis – Wehekind: 1960:73.


Spilotes sulphureus  (Wagler)
Natrix sulphureus Wagler, 1824:26, pl 9. Type locality: shoreline forest along the Rio Japura, Brazil.
Phrynoax sulphureus – Mole, 1914:144.
Pseustes sulphureus sulphureus – Brongersma, 1937:6, figs. la-lb.


Spilotes pullatus  (Linnaeus)
Coluber pullarus Linnaeus, 1758:225. Type locality: Asia (in error).
Coluber variabili Court, 1858:441.
Spilotes pullatus: Reinhardt and Lutken, 1862:8.
Spilotes variabilis: Mole and Urich, 1894b:509.
Spilotes Pullatus ater: Stemfield, 1920: 185 (Tobago).
Spiioles pullatus pullatus: Amaral. 1930a:157.


Tantilla melanocephala (Linnaeus)
Coluber melanocephalus Linnaeus, 1758:218. Type locality: America.
Homaloeranium melanoeephalum: Mole and Urich, 1894a:85.
Tantilla melanoeephala: Amaral, 1930a:221.
Tantilla melanocephalum: Wehekind, 1955:1 2.
Tantilla melanoeephala melanocephala: Mertens, 1972:16,
Family Dipsadidae
Atractus trilineatus Wagler
Atractus trilineatus Wagler, 1828:747. Type locality: none given. (Caracas, Distrito Federal, Venezuela)
Rhabdosoma lineatum – Garman, 1887c:280.
Geophis lineatus – Mole and Urich, 1894a:84
Atractus trilineatus – Barbour. 1916b:224.


Atractus univittatus (Jan)
Rabdosoma univittatum Jan, 1862: 15. Type locality: Caracas, Distrito Federal, Venezuela.Atractus univittatus – Roze, 1961:117.
Atractus univittatum – Lancini 1979:80.
Atractus cf. univittatus – Hardy, 1982:82.


Dipsas trinitatis Parker
Dipsas trinitatis Parker, 1926:205. Type locality: Trinity Hill Reserve, Trinidad.
Dipsas trinitatis: Wehekind, 1955: 11.
Dipsas variegate trinitatis: Peters, 1960: 139.


Dipsas variegata  Duméril, Bibron & Duméril 1854
Leptognathus variegatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril 1854: 477
Dipsas variegata - Gomes 1918: 525


Imantodes cenchoa  (Linnaeus)
Coluber cenchoa Linnaeus, 1758:226. Type locality: America.
Himantodes cenchoa: Reinhardt and Lutken, 1862: 12.
Dipsas cenchoa: Garman, 1887c:258.
Imantodes cenchoa cenchoa: Smith, 1942:384.
lmantodes c. cenchoa: DeVerteuil, 1968:103.


Leptodeira annulata ashmeadi 
(Hallowell)
Coluber ashmeadi Hallowell, 1845:244. Type locality: 200 miles from Caracas Venezuela. Restricted by Duellman (1958:44) to vicinity of Caracas, Distrito Federal, Venezuela. Leptodeira annulata: Garman, 1887c:285.
Leptodeira albofusca: Boettger, 1889:95.
Leptodeira annulata annulata: Amaral, 1930a:204.
Leptodira annulata annulata: Beebe, 1952: 175.
Leptodeira annulata ashmeadi: Due1lman,1958:47.


Ninia atrata (Hallowell)
Coluber atratus Hallowell, 1845:245. Type locality: within 200 miles of Caracas, Venezuela. Niniaatrata: Cope, 1860b:340.
Streptophorus atratus: Boulenger, 1893:293.
Ninia atrata atrata: Beebe, 1952:175.
Ninia hudsoni: Burger and Werler, 1954:649.


Sibon nebulata  (Linnaeus)
Coluber nebulatus Linnaeus 1758:222. Type locality: America.
Leptognathus nebulatus: Mole and Urich, 1894a:87.
Petalognathus nebulatus: Boulenger, 1894:239.
Sibon sibon: Amaral, 1930a: 194.
Sibon nebulatus: Roze, 1952b:96. Sibon nebulata nebulata: Peters, 1960:199.
Sibon n. nebulata: DeVerteuil, 1968:103.
Sibon nebulatus nebulatus: Mertens, 1972:15.


Clelia clelia clelia (Daudin)
Coluber clelia Daudin, 1803:330. Type locality: Suriname.
Oxyrhopus plumbeus: Reinhardt and Lütken, 1862:12.
Oxyrrhopus cloelia:Boettger, 1898:97.
Oxyrhopus cloelia: Mole. 1914:147.
Clelia cloelia: Barbour, 1914:341.
Clelia clelia clelia: Dunn, 1944:201.
Cloelia c. cloellia: Wehekind, 1955:12.
Cloelia cloelia: Wehekind. 1960:74.
Pseudoboa cloelia: Underwood, 1962: 179.
Clelia cloelia cloelia: Roze. 1966:102.
Clelia clelia: Boos and Quesnel, 1968:7.
Cloelia c. cloelia: DeVerteuil, 1968:103.


Erythrolamprus aesculapii  (Linnaeus)
Coluber aesculapii Linnaeus, 1766:380. Type locality: "Indiis."
Erythrolamprus Aesculapii: Dumeril, Bibron and Dumeril, 1854:845.
Erythrolamprus Aesculapii [Aesculapii]: Jan, 1863:314.
Erythrolaprus aesculapii ocellatus: Peters and Orejas-Miranda, 1970: III. Trinidad and Tobago, Trinidad as a locality for this taxon is in error.


Erythrolamprus bizona Jan
[Erythrolamprus Aesculapii] bizona Jan, 1863:314. Type locality: "Bahia, Messico, Popayan, Cayenne, Brasile. Montevideo, Colombia." Restricted to Colombia by Dunn and Bailey, 1939: 12.
Erythrolamprus aesculapi: Schmidt, 1957:61 , Figure 9 (upper right).
Erythrolamprus aesoulapii: Wehekind, 1960:73.
Erythrolamprus aesculapii aesculapii: Boos, 1975a:25.
Erythrolamprus [sp.]: Hardy, 1982:86.
Erythrolamprus bizona: Hardy and Boos, 1995: 162.


Erythrolamprus ocellatus Peters
Erythrolamprus ocellatus Peters, 1868:642. Type locality: Tobago.
Erythrolamprus aesculapii ocellatus-Emsley, 1966a:129.
Erythrolamprus aesculapii ocellatus-Peters and Orejas-Miranda, 1970: III (Trinidad and Tobago, Trinidad in error for this race.).


Helicops angulatus (Linnaeus)
Coluber angulatus Linnaeus, 1758:217. Type locality: Asia (in error).
Helicops angulatus: Wagler, 1830:171.
Helicops angulata: Underwood, 1962:179.


Hydrops triangularis (Wagler)
Hydrops Martii: Reinhardt and Lutken, 1862:7.
Hydrops triangularis: Mole, 1914:146.
Hydrops triancularis [sic]: Wehekind, 1955:11.
Hydrops triangularis triangularis: Brongersma, 1956b: 183.
Hydrops triangularis neglectus Roze, 1957: 18, fig. 13d. Type locality: Trinidad.
Hydrops triangularis - Albuquerque and De Lema, 2008


Erythrolamprus  cobella (Linnaeus)
Coluber cobella Linnaeus. 1758:218. Type locality: America.
Liophis cobella: Garman. 1887c:280.
Rhadinaea cobella: Boettger, 1898:66.
Liaphis cobella cobella: Beebe, 1952:175.
Liophis cobellus cobellus: Dixon, 1989:10.


Erythrolamprus  melanotus nesos Dixon and Michaud
Dromicus melanotus: Gunther, 1858:133.
Liophis melanonotus:Cope. 1860a:253.
Liophis melanotus: Boulenger, 1894:134.
Leimadophis melanotus: Barbour, 1914:304.
Liophis melanurus: Roux, 1926:291.
Liophis melanotus nesos Dixon and Michaud, 1992:256. Type locality: " ... Spring Hill Estate. Arima Valley, Trinidad ... "


Erythrolamprus  zweifeli Roze
Liophis reginae: Mole and Urich, 1894a:84.
Leimadophis reginae: Roux. 1926:292.
Leimadophis regillae (regillae): Amaral, 1935:238.
Leimadophis zweifeli Roze, 1959:4. Type locality: "Rancho Grande in the state of Aragua, Venezuela, at an elevation of 1100 meters, in cloud forest region."
Liophis regillae zweifeli: Dixon, 1983a:126.


Erythrolamprus sp.
Liophis sp.: Hardy, 1982:86.
Liophis reginae ssp.: Dixon, 1983a:137.


Oxyrhopus petolarius (Linnaeus, 1758)
Coluber petola Linnaeus, 1758:225. Type locality: Africa (in error).
Coluber petolarius: Linnaeus, 1758:225. Type locality: "lndiis."
Oxyrhopus doliatus: Reinhardt and Lutken , 1862:12.
Oxyrrhopus plumbeus: Boulenger, 1891:285.
Oxyrrhopus petola: Lonnberg, 1896:7.
Oxyrhopus petolarius: Mole, 1924:252.
Oxyrhopus pelola petola: Beebe, 1946:37.
Oyxyrhopus p. pelola: Wehekind, 1960:74.
Pseudoboa petola: Underwood, 1962:179.


Pseudoboa neuwiedii (Duméril, Bibron and Duméril)
Scytale neuwiedii Duméril, Bibron and Duméril, 1854: 100 I. Type locality: Cote Ferme and Brazil, restricted by Hoge and Lancini (1960) to Cumana, Venezuela.
Scytale coronatum: Gunther, 1858: 188.
Tortryx scytale: Court, 1858:441.
Tortrix scytale: Court, 1884:382.
Oxyrrhopus [sic.] neuwiedi: Boettger, 1897:211.
Pseudoboa guerini: Werner, 1899:473.
Pseudoboa coronatus: Mole, 1914:147.
Oxyrhopus neuwiedii: Mole 1924:255.
Pseudoboa coronatus: Wehekind, 1955:12.
Pseudoboa neuwiedii neuwiedii: Roze, 1966:207.
Pseudoboa coronata: Mertens, 1969:66.
Psuedoboa c. coronata: DeVerteuil, 1968:103.
Pseudoboa neuwiedi: Schwartz and Thomas 1975:190.


Siphlophis cervinus (Laurenti)
Coronella cervina Laurenti, 1768:88. Type locality: America.
Lycognathus cervinus: Boulenger, 1896:57.
Sipholophis cervinus cervinus: Beebe, 1946:42.
Siphilophis C. [sic.] cervinus: Wehekind, 1955:10.
Siphlophis cervinus: Hoge, 1964:43.


Siphlophis compressus (Daudin)
Coluber compressus Daudin, 1803:247. Type locality: Suriname.
Trypanurgos compressus: Boulenger, 1896:58.
Tripanurgos compressus: Underwood, 1962:179.


Thamnodynastes ramonriverio 
Manzanilla and Sánchez
Thamnodynastes strigatus: Boos, 1984a: 3,
Thamnodynastes ramonriverio Manzanilla and Sánchez 2005:
Family Elapidae
Micrurus circinalis
(Duméril, Bibron and Duméril)
Elaps circinalis Duméril. Bibron and Duméril, 1854,7:1210. Type locality: Martinique (in error); Roze (1989) restricted the type locality to Trinidad, West Indies, he selected MNHN 3912, a female from an unknown locality as the lectotype; and noted that other two syntypes of Elaps circinalis that still exist in the Paris Museum do not belong to this species.
Elaps corallinus: Court, 1858:441.
Elaps corallinus var. E. Riisei: Reinhardt and Lütken, 1862:6.
Elaps riisei: Garman, 1887c:285.
Micrurus (Elaps) micrurus: Field, 1942:40.
Micrurus corallinus : Wehekind, 1955:12.
Micrurus circinalis: Schmidt,1936: 192.
Micrurus psyches circinalis: Roze, 1967:40.
Micrurus psyches psyches: Lancini, 1979:189 (photo on p. 190-191) (in error).


Micrurus lemniscatus diutius 
Burger
Elaps lemniscatus: Gunther, 1858:234.
Elaps marcgravii: Boettger, 1898:126.
Micrurus lemniscatus: Beebe, 1919:216.
Elaps marcgravi: Roux, 1926:292.
Micrurus lemniscratus [sic.): Wehekind, 1955:12.
Micrurus lemniscatus diutius Burger, 1955:40. Type locality: Tunapuna, Trinidad.
Family Viperidae
Bothrops sp.
Trigollocephalus asper var, n. C. lallceolati Garman. Type locality: Opispo, Isthmus of Darien, Panama.
Trigonocephlus jacaraca: Court, 1858:441.
Bothrops lallceolatus: Cope, 1879:276.
Lachesis lallceolara: Boettger, 1898:137.
Bothrops atrox: Mole and Urich, 1894a:87.
Lachesis atrox: Mole, 1924:271.
Bothrops atrox atrox: Beebe, 1952: 175.
Bothrops asper: Campbell and Lamar, 1989:250.


Lachesis muta (Linnaeus)
Crotalus mutus Linnaeus. 1766:373. Type locality: Suriname.
Lachesis mutus Daudin, 1803. 5:351.
Lachesis mutus: Mole and Urich, 1891:477.
Lachesis muta [muta]: Taylor, 1951:184.
Lachesis muta muta: Beebe. 1952: 175.
Lachesis muta: Underwood, 1962: 179.